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https://annmorrislighting.com/p1c74hiv Description: El Ajedrecista was one of the first autonomous machines capable of playing chess without human guidance. Was built in 1912 by Leonardo Torres Quevedo. He made his debut during the Paris Fair of 1914, where he generated great expectations. It is considered the first computer game in history.
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https://dentaris-sa.com/2024/05/13/yz8o4taun Bibliography

  • Averbakh, Yuri. (2012). A history of chess. From Chaturanga to the present day. Milford, USA: Russel enterprises Inc.
  • Eales, Richard. (2002). Chess: The history of a game. Glasgow, Scotland: Hardinge Simpole Publishing.
  • Elo, Arpad E. (2008). The rating of chess players, Past and Present. New York: Ishi Press.
  • Hooper, David. Whyld, Kenneth. (1992). The Oxford companion to chess. Oxford: Oxford University Press
  • Murray, H. J. R. (1913). A history of chess. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Robert Löhr; Anthea Bell (2007). The chess machine. Penguin Group USA.
  • Stephen Patrick Rice (2004). Minding the Machine: Languages of Class in Early Industrial America. University of California Press. 
  • Vigneron (1914). Les automates. Le Nature. Paris, France.
  • Levy, David (1998). Computer Chess Compendium. Springer-Verlag New York: Springer Science & Business Media.