enter site enter site The Turk (1770-1854)

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https://domainebregeon.com/qv8o5fv7m The Turk (1783. Public Domain)


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follow Alias: Mechanical Turk. Automaton Chess Player

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https://thegreathighway.com/lthy539 Description: The Turk was a high precision automaton machine designed by Wolfgang von Kempelen to play chess. It consists of a wooden box and a mannequin dressed in Arab clothes. He had great success and Kempelen was able to Europe and America tour showing his great invention. The Turk defeated famous chess players, including Napoleon Bonaparte and Benjamin Franklin. Later it was discovered that in reality a human chess master hid inside to operate the machine.
https://aaerj.org.br/2024/05/13/xefch8z Sex: – https://domainebregeon.com/63cma8pari Occupation: Chess machine.
https://pkuatm.org/2024/05/13/ykh7rmcz Place of Birth / Death: Vienna, Austria / Baltimore, Maryland, United States source link Country Tags: Austria. United States.
https://aguasamazonicas.org/roxsnjp3 Centuries: XVIII-XIX. Buy Xanax Safely Online Title: –
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https://discovershareinspire.com/2024/05/86ju8uks3x Styles: – https://restoreredspruce.org/2024/05/13/hqpducx3j Chess Olympiads: –


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https://restoreredspruce.org/2024/05/13/v015vao0pf6 Bibliography

  • Averbakh, Yuri. (2012). A history of chess. From Chaturanga to the present day. Milford, USA: Russel enterprises Inc.
  • Eales, Richard. (2002). Chess: The history of a game. Glasgow, Scotland: Hardinge Simpole Publishing.
  • Elo, Arpad E. (2008). The rating of chess players, Past and Present. New York: Ishi Press.
  • Gerald M. Levitt (2000). The Turk, chess automaton. McFarland & Company, Incorporated Publishers.
  • Hooper, David. Whyld, Kenneth. (1992). The Oxford companion to chess. Oxford: Oxford University Press
  • Murray, H. J. R. (1913). A history of chess. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Robert Löhr; Anthea Bell (2007). The chess machine. Penguin Group USA.
  • Stephen Patrick Rice (2004). Minding the Machine: Languages of Class in Early Industrial America. University of California Press. 
  • Tom Standage (2002). The Turk: The Life and Times of the Famous 19th Century Chess-Playing Machine. Walker.