The Turk (1770-1854)
|Alternative last name spellings: –|
|Alternative first name spellings: –|
|Alias: Mechanical Turk. Automaton Chess Player|
|Description: The Turk was a high precision automaton machine designed by Wolfgang von Kempelen to play chess. It consists of a wooden box and a mannequin dressed in Arab clothes. He had great success and Kempelen was able to Europe and America tour showing his great invention. The Turk defeated famous chess players, including Napoleon Bonaparte and Benjamin Franklin. Later it was discovered that in reality a human chess master hid inside to operate the machine.
|Sex: –||Occupation: Chess machine.|
|Place of Birth / Death: Vienna, Austria / Baltimore, Maryland, United States||Country Tags: Austria. United States.|
|Centuries: XVIII-XIX.||Title: –|
|World Champion: –||School: –|
|Styles: –||Chess Olympiads: –|
|Fictional stories (MC Universe):|
|Music Composers vs. Chess Players:|
- Ajedrez de Ataque: El Turco de Von Kempelen: http://www.ajedrezdeataque.com/04%20Articulos/00%20Otros%20articulos/Computadoras/Automatas/Turco.htm – [28/03/2018]
- Donald E. Chipman: El Turco, in TSHA online: https://tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/fel01 – [28/03/2018].
- Ella Morton: The Mechanical Chess Player That Unsettled the World, in slate.com: http://www.slate.com/blogs/atlas_obscura/2015/08/20/the_turk_an_supposed_chess_playing_robot_was_a_hoax_that_started_an_early.html – [28/03/2018].
- The Turk player profile and games at Chessgames.com: http://www.chessgames.com/player/the_turk.html – [28/03/2018].
- Von Kempelen’s Chess Turk recreated: https://en.chessbase.com/post/von-kempelen-s-che-turk-recreated – [28/03/2018].
- Wikipedia the free encyclopedia: The Turk: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Turk – [28/03/2018].
- Averbakh, Yuri. (2012). A history of chess. From Chaturanga to the present day. Milford, USA: Russel enterprises Inc.
- Eales, Richard. (2002). Chess: The history of a game. Glasgow, Scotland: Hardinge Simpole Publishing.
- Elo, Arpad E. (2008). The rating of chess players, Past and Present. New York: Ishi Press.
- Gerald M. Levitt (2000). The Turk, chess automaton. McFarland & Company, Incorporated Publishers.
- Hooper, David. Whyld, Kenneth. (1992). The Oxford companion to chess. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- Murray, H. J. R. (1913). A history of chess. New York: Oxford University Press.
- Robert Löhr; Anthea Bell (2007). The chess machine. Penguin Group USA.
- Stephen Patrick Rice (2004). Minding the Machine: Languages of Class in Early Industrial America. University of California Press.
- Tom Standage (2002). The Turk: The Life and Times of the Famous 19th Century Chess-Playing Machine. Walker.